ColorADD

Comida. Roupa. Lápis de cor. Tintas de parede. Sinais de trânsito. Verniz para as unhas. Bandeiras da praia. Vivemos num mundo onde a cor é um incontornável elemento de distinção, significação e comunicação. São por isso raros os produtos ou serviços onde a cor não seja um factor de decisão ou de design.

Infelizmente, as cores não são iguais para todos. Um indivíduo com uma visão normal consegue distinguir cerca de 30 mil cores. Um daltónico (apenas 2 por cento são mulheres) só consegue identificar entre 500 e 800. Um em cada dez homens (incluindo o autor desta rubrica) sofre de um de três tipos de daltonismo: dicromacia, tricromacia anómala e monocromacia. Esta não é, à partida, das condições mais debilitantes a nível físico e social. Mas dependendo do tipo e gravidade do daltonismo, há quem precise de mais ou menos ajuda para navegar no nosso mundo colorido.

Embora o design seja uma actividade comummente associada a criar variações de uma norma estabelecida (uma cadeira, um cartaz, uma saia), destinadas ao maior número possível de utilizadores e/ou consumidores, cada vez mais designers chamam a si a responsabilidade de criar soluções verdadeiramente universais, e inclusivas, para problemas do quotidiano.

Foi exactamente o que Miguel Neiva fez quando desenvolveu, no âmbito da tese de mestrado que defendeu na Universidade do Minho em 2008, o ColorADD. Neste código gráfico monocromático de identificação de cor, o designer associou cada cor primária – vermelho/magenta, amarelo e azul/ciano – a uma forma geométrica básica – respectivamente triângulo, barra diagonal e triângulo invertido. Como no normal espectro cromático, os três símbolos primários combinam-se e desdobram-se noutras cores e tons. São ainda associados a outros símbolos como claro, escuro, branco, preto, dourado e prateado.

Após oito anos de investigação, Neiva quis validar o código junto de diferentes áreas do conhecimento. Em “congressos internacionais – cor, semiótica, comunicação, vestuário, alimentação, design inclusivo, responsabilidade social… – procurei o reconhecimento e acreditação do código”. Aqui obteve a validação científica que necessitava: “Uma coisa é eu dizer que a solução é válida, outra coisa é os próprios “gurus” dessas áreas dizerem que esta é a “solução”.”

A seguir trabalhou com empresas e instituições para que este código, único no mundo, fosse integrado em produtos e serviços. Um dos primeiros foram os lápis Viarco ColorADD, que Neiva considera serem, na área da educação, “o produto mais “tangível” da aplicação do código, onde este ultrapassa “o público daltónico e serve todas as crianças no primeiro ciclo”. Na área da saúde, este projecto tem sido “um factor inclusivo e identificativo para minorar o “erro””. Exemplo disso é o serviço de anestesiologia do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, onde o ColorADD está a ser aplicado para “evitar erros recorrentes de troca de fármacos em situações de stress em que o risco é fatal (em 2009, a troca inadvertida de seringas cegou seis doentes de Santa Maria)”. Irá também ser aplicado à triagem de prioridades de Manchester, onde a cada doente das urgências é atribuída, consoante a sua situação clínica, uma pulseira colorida.

Para Neiva, “a transversalidade do código permite-lhe “encaixar” e incluir indivíduos na sociedade, em qualquer área onde que a cor é um factor determinante de orientação e/ou escolha”. O ColorADD tem vindo a ganhar terreno: as Tintas CIN, as cerâmicas Aleluia, os têxteis Blankpage, o Metro do Porto ou a Fundação Champalimaud usam-no.

Neiva tem agora “estudos de aplicação e implementação desenvolvidos em diversas áreas e com entidades ou empresas portuguesas: uma estratégia minha, pela proximidade geográfica de poder fazê-los e testá-los com custos mais acessíveis, o que permite às marcas portuguesas “ganhar” um argumento forte e diferenciador”. E adianta: “Há manifesto interesse de multinacionais nas áreas dos jogos didácticos, informática, mobiliário e bens de consumo em geral.” O designer já se reuniu com a empresa de transportes de Londres e este mês vai para o Brasil, onde tem contactos nas áreas da saúde, transportes e alimentação, mas também no Mundial de Futebol 2014 e nos Jogos Olímpicos 2016.

Hoje, o ColorADD ainda é um exemplo de design português. Amanhã será um exemplar caso de design universal. Nós, os daltónicos, agradecemos.

BI
ColorADD — Sistema de Identificação de Cor para Daltónicos

Design
Miguel Neiva

Cliente
Vários

Datas
2000-2008: investigação teórica e desenvolvimento sistema ColorADD
2008: lançamento/apresentação do projecto
2010: primeiras aplicações (tintas, lápis, cerâmicas, têxteis, triagem em urgências hospitalares)

+ info: www.coloradd.net



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